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Map all coordinates using: OpenStreetMap. An iconic feat of architecture that sparked copies around Germany for centuries to come, Aachen's cathedral became the first-built vaulted structure since antiquity.
The town itself was closely tied to Charlemagne during the cathedral's inception, which explains why it became his burial place when he died in The abbey and gate or 'Torhall', are from the Carolingian era.
The notable Carolingian sculptures and paintings are still in good condition. Often referred to as the "Romanesque Sistine Chapel", the church features well-preserved murals from the 11th and 12th centuries.
Amiens Cathedral is known as one of the classic Gothic churches of the 13th century. Following a devastating fire in , it spent almost an entire years under construction before taking on its current form in , after which it has remained in great shape.
Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians are used to study the spread of the beech tree Fagus sylvatica in the Northern Hemisphere across a variety of environments and the environment in the forest.
The addition of the Ancient Beech Forests of Germany in included five forests totaling 4, hectares 10, acres that are added to the 29, hectares 72, acres of Slovakian and Ukrainian beech forests inscribed on the World Heritage List in The site was further expanded in to include forests in 9 additional European countries.
Hedeby was an important settlement of Danish Vikings and Swedish Varangians. It is considered an early medieval city in northern Europe and was an important trading place and main hub for long-distance trade between Scandinavia, western Europe, the North Sea region and the Baltic States.
The site is a unique testament to the longevity of several prehistoric and medieval settlements, featuring various cultural, artistic and scientific advancements that span four millennia.
Seventeen examples in seven countries of the work of modern architecture pioneer Le Corbusier. These buildings span about half a century of work and illustrate the solutions that modern architects found to meet the needs of society as well as the international reach of modern architecture.
The city, originally built in the 6th century BCE by Phocaean settlers from Greece, was remodelled by the Romans and slowly grew into an important metropolis, both politically and religiously.
By , however, Arles was conquered by Barbarians and suffered a decline in its status until the 9th century, when Boso founded what would later become the Kingdom of Arles , where it regained its importance.
Founded in in Weimar , the Bauhaus was the most influential art school of the 20th century. The buildings designed by the masters of the Bauhaus are fundamental representatives of Classical Modernism.
The Convent of Müstair is a Christian monastery from the Carolingian period. It has Switzerland's greatest series of figurative murals, painted c.
Bergpark Wilhelmshöhe is the largest European hillside park, and second largest park on a mountain slope in the world. Its waterworks along with the towering Hercules statue constitute an expression of the ideals of absolutist Monarchy while the ensemble is a remarkable testimony to the aesthetics of the Baroque and Romantic periods.
The property consists of six housing estates from to It is an example of the building reform movement that contributed to improved housing and living conditions for people with low incomes.
The estates also showcase a number of new designs, decoration and layouts. The lessons learned here were applied on other projects around the world.
In the 19th century, Wales was the world's foremost producer of iron and coal. Blaenavon is an example of the landscape created by the industrial processes associated with the production of these materials.
The site includes quarries, public buildings, workers' housing, and a railway. The associated park was landscaped by Capability Brown.
The palace celebrated victory over the French and is significant for establishing English Romantic Architecture as a separate entity from French Classical Architecture.
A port city world-renowned for its wine industry, Bordeaux is also a coherent blend of classical and neo-classical architectural trends that symbolise the urban transformation from the 18th century onwards.
Originally built to confirm the ruling of the archdiocese and rebuilt due to fire, the cathedral is simplistic in its design, yet considered be a unique landmark of the city.
Some of the medieval-era houses still surround the church. Creator Pierre-Paul Riquet also placed heavy emphasis on the aesthetics of the waterway so that it would blend with its surroundings.
St Martin's Church is the oldest church in England. The church and St Augustine's Abbey were founded during the early stages of the introduction of Christianity to the Anglo-Saxons.
The cathedral exhibits Romanesque and Gothic architecture , and is the seat of the Church of England. The abbey church was built between AD and Today the westwork is the only standing structure that dates back to the Carolingian era , while the ruins of the abbey are only partly excavated.
It was an important center of early Frankish imperial administration and in the spread of Christianity in Germany.
During the reign of Edward I of England — , a series of castles were constructed in Wales with the purpose of subduing the population and establishing English colonies in Wales.
The castles of Edward I are considered the pinnacle of military architecture by military historians. Augustusburg Castle, the residence of the prince-archbishops of Cologne, and the Falkenlust hunting lodge are both examples of early German Rococo architecture.
Notre-Dame in Reims is one of the masterpieces of Gothic art. The former archiepiscopal palace known as the Tau Palace, which played an important role in religious ceremonies, was almost entirely rebuilt in the 17th century.
This site, in the southern part of central France, displays the relationship between local farming and the environment.
The region is mountainous with numerous narrow valleys. The local farmers had to adapt to raise food in this difficult landscape.
The valleys of the Causses were developed and controlled by large abbeys, starting in the 11th century. Excavated from the s, six caves have revealed items dating from 43, to 33, years ago, including one statuette of a female form, carved figurines of animals, musical instruments and items of personal adornment.
These archaeological sites feature some of the oldest figurative art worldwide and help shed light on the origins of human artistic development.
The cathedral was started in and rebuilt after a fire in It is a masterpiece of French Gothic art.
The sculptures are from the 12th century and the stained-glass windows are from the 12th and 13th centuries.
The site consists of two towns situated close to one another in a remote environment in the Swiss Jura mountains.
Due to poor agricultural land, the watchmaking industry developed in the towns in the 19th century. After several devastating fires the towns were rebuilt to support this single industry.
The monastery was founded by St Bernard in The abbey was built to be self-sufficient and to isolate the residents from the outside world. In addition to the church and monks' quarters, it had a bakery and ironworks to help make it independent.
Founded by the Romans as a spa, an important centre of the wool industry in the medieval period, and a spa town in the 18th century, Bath has a varied history.
The city is preserved for its Roman remains and Palladian architecture. A branch of the Habsburg family lived in Graz for centuries. The Habsburgs and other local nobles beautified and expanded Graz over centuries, leading to a city with grand buildings in a number of styles.
Luxembourg occupies a strategically important location in the region. Over the centuries it was traded back and forth by the great powers in Europe, each of which fortified and expanded the city.
Though many of the walls were dismantled in , portions still remain. Weimar became a cultural center in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
Among the many artists and writers, the city was home to Goethe and Schiller. During this same period elegant buildings and parks were built in Weimar.
The preservation of old Quedlinberg allows tourists to see 16th- and 17th-century timber-framed houses and walk down medieval-patterned streets, while the Romanesque castle and cathedral, housing the bodies of Henry I and his wife, tower over the town.
While work on the Cologne Cathedral began in , it remained incomplete until the Prussians picked up the task centuries later, finishing the job in It was heavily bombed in the Second World War , but restorations allowed it to become the most visited landmark in Germany, boasting 6.
Switzerland St. It was in operation from the 8th century to its secularization in Its library is one of the richest and oldest in the world and contains a number of precious manuscripts such as the Plan of Saint Gall.
Portions of the building were rebuilt in the Baroque style. Tin and copper mining in Devon and Cornwall boomed in the 18th and 19th centuries, and at its peak the area produced two-thirds of the world's copper.
The techniques and technology involved in deep mining developed in Devon and Cornwall were used around the world. The cave is home to over paintings and drawing from about 30, to 32, years before present as well as flora and fauna remains.
It contains the earliest and best preserved examples of prehistoric cave art. The art is especially notable for its use of color, motion, anatomical precision and three-dimensionality.
It was designed to temporarily flood the area comprising the line, enabling the 45 armed forts along it to effectively stage their countermeasures.
The early 17th-century Beemster Polder is a series of fields, roads, canals, dykes and settlements all built on land reclaimed from the sea.
Durham Cathedral is the "largest and finest" example of Norman architecture in England and vaulting of the cathedral was part of the advent of Gothic architecture.
The cathedral houses relics of St Cuthbert and Bede. The Norman castle was the residence of the Durham prince-bishops. The combined work of nature and human activity has produced a harmonious landscape in which the mountains are mirrored in the lakes.
Grand houses, gardens and parks have been purposely created to enhance the beauty of this landscape. This landscape was greatly appreciated from the 18th century onwards by the Picturesque and later Romantic movements, which celebrated it in paintings, drawings and words.
It also inspired an awareness of the importance of beautiful landscapes and triggered early efforts to preserve them. The once powerful Albi, founded as an agricultural town, gradually shifted its theme from fortifications to a much more classical Renaissance look that survives as a testament to the two eras in human history.
The mountains in south-west Germany and north-west Czechia have been a source of metals including silver, tin and uranium beginning in the 12th century.
The cultural landscape of the region was shaped by mining and smelting innovations. Built by Walter Gropius in , the factory designed to manufacture shoe last was renowned for redefining decorative values of the time period, particularly in the wide use of glass to render the building much more homogeneous, which foreshadowed his later work with the Bauhaus.
A number of 18th- and 19th-century villages and castles were built on top of the ancient settlements and landscape. Entire Flemish towns were created in the 13th century based on this principle of life.
The hydraulic lifts along the Canal du Centre were made to overcome the They are the last functioning lifts built at the turn of the 20th century.
It was created by volcanic activity in the Tertiary period. Featuring Brussels' city hall, houses and other historic buildings, La Grand Place is a well-preserved testament to the social and cultural life of the late 17th century.
The Gulf of Porto is part of the Corsica Regional Park , hosting a variety of marine and avian life, as well as shrubland.
The region built itself around salt mining, which began as early as 2, BCE and continued in the modern era. Lübeck was the trading capital of the influential Hanseatic League , which monopolised trade in much of the Northern Europe.
Although a fifth of the city was entirely destroyed in World War II , much of the original 12th-century architecture remains. A collection of Neolithic sites with purposes ranging from occupation to ceremony.
It includes the settlement of Skara Brae , the chambered tomb of Maes Howe and the stone circles of Stenness and Brodgar.
One of the economic and commercial capitals of Europe in the late-Medieval period, Bruges boasts its intact Gothic and neo-Gothic architecture, which respectively documents its style from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance.
Best associated with Austrian composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart , Salzburg is known for its ecclesiastic city-state qualities only second to Vatican City.
It is also where German and Italian cultures intersected, which is reflected by its blend of Gothic - and Baroque -style buildings.
The two towns were major Hanseatic League trading centres in the 14th and 15th centuries. They then served as defensive and administrative centres for Sweden two hundred years later, notably during the Thirty Years' War.
The architectural styles from both of these periods remain and are well-preserved. Wouda Steam Pumping Station.
Ironbridge Gorge contains mines, factories, workers' housing, and the transport infrastructure that was created in the gorge during the Industrial Revolution.
The development of coke production in the area helped start the Industrial Revolution. The Iron Bridge was the world's first bridge built from iron and was architecturally and technologically influential.
The act of cultivating grapes was introduced to the region by the Romans around 27 BCE and became a large and enduring part of its economy over the course of the following millennia, despite wars and the changes of rule.
Occupying The first canals and pumps to drain the land for farming were built here in the Middle Ages.
They have continued to be used and expanded into the present day. The network includes a number of dykes, reservoirs, pumping stations, administrative buildings and a series of windmills.
The current terraces can be traced back to the 11th century, when Benedictine and Cistercian monasteries controlled the area.
Perret's final product was a city blending its original layout and spirit with modern construction methods, urban planning and an innovative exploitation of concrete.
Its global connections helped sustain the British Empire , and it was a major port involved in the slave trade until its abolition in , and a departure point for emigrants to North America.
The docks were the site of innovations in construction and dock management. The Loire Valley contains historic towns and villages, castles and cultivated lands along the banks of the river Loire.
As well as the presence of the first example of Palladian architecture in England, and works by Christopher Wren and Inigo Jones , the area is significant for the Royal Observatory where the understanding of astronomy and navigation were developed.
The Cistercian Maulbronn Monastery is considered the most complete and best-preserved medieval monastic complex north of the Alps.
The main buildings were constructed between the 12th and 16th centuries, along with the monastery walls. The monastery's church, mainly in Transitional Gothic style , helped spread the Gothic style across northern and central Europe.
The monastery also had a large, elaborate water-management system. Messel Pit is the richest site in the world for understanding the environment of the Eocene , between 57 million and 36 million years ago.
In particular, it shows the early stages of mammalian evolution and includes exceptionally well-preserved mammal fossils. Some of the most notable discoveries include fully articulated skeletons and the contents of the stomachs of animals.
The Upper Harz water management system was developed over a period of some years to assist in mining and extracting ore.
The mines and their ponds began under the Cistercian monks in the Middle Ages. However, most of the works were built from the end of the 16th century until the 19th century.
It is made up of an extremely complex system of artificial ponds, small channels, tunnels and underground drains. The mines were a major site for mining innovation in the western world.
Even though the Trevi fountain is one of the oldest sources of water in Rome, it is more than just the splashing water you see. The statue of Oceanus in the center of the fountain standing under a triumphal arch with his chariot being pulled by two horses, one calm and the other wild represent the opposing moods of the sea.
The statue of Abundance to the left of Arch, The statute of Health at the right of the arch — all these statues represent something significant.
Related post: Most romantic places in Europe. With a combination of Christian architectural elements from Hagia Sophia another popular tourist attraction nearby with traditional Islamic architecture, Blue mosque is considered to be the last great mosque of the Classical period and the proof is quite visible.
The blue mosque is still an active house of worship for Moslems with its interior as impressive as the exterior.
To get the most out of your visit to Big Ben, stay for nightfall to enjoy a spectacular sight when the four clock faces are illuminated.
Related post : Best spring destinations in Europe. One of the most impressive buildings in Budapest and Hungary as a whole is the Hungarian Parliament building.
Located next to the Danube river on the Pest side of Budapest, this architectural wonder constructed in a neo-Gothic style is one of the most famous buildings in Europe.
Officially opened in , the Hungarian Parliament Building is considered the largest parliament building in the world with 10 courtyards, 13 passenger and freight elevators, 27 gates, 29 staircases, and rooms.
Worry not that you might miss walking through the passages of the building when the parliament is in session because the interior is symmetrical with two identical parliament halls of which one is used for political reasons and the other for guided tours for tourists.
It is not just the buttresses, towers, and big domes on the exterior that makes this Hungarian parliament building one of the top landmarks in Europe but also the main staircase, the dome hall, parliament session hall and the crown of Stephen are equally impressive when you make your way into this magnificent building.
Related post: Romantic things to do in Europe. What used to be a symbol of division between Berlin and Germany during the Cold war is now a symbol of peace and Unity.
Located on the western edge of the city, Brandenburg Gate is not just one of the most important landmarks in Germany but also one of the top European monuments.
Erected between and , the design of the Brandenburg gate was inspired by the Acropolis in Greece — one of the historical sites in Europe that we looked at earlier.
The Brandenburg gate is made up of 12 Doric columns with 6 on each side creating five passageways. The sculpture is one of the most iconic in Europe and a trip to Berlin is not complete without visiting this historic landmark.
This list of the famous landmarks in Europe is not exhaustive at all but if you were looking for historical places in Europe to add to your bucket list, I hope this post inspired you.
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